Carlos Mario Restrepo Arboleda, PhD


  • Bachelor in Biotechnology, specialization in agro-industrial biotechnology, Fundación Universitaria San Martín (Summa cum laude).


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University/INDICASAT AIP.


Researcher at the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology of Diseases, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT AIP).

Research Area

Biotechnology and bioinformatics. Genomic studies for discovery and characterization of genes associated with virulence, pathogenesis, immune response evasion and drug resistance in protozoan and bacterial pathogens. Application of genomic information for the development of diagnostic methods, drugs, and vaccines. Molecular epidemiology.

Main research lines
  • Genomics of Leishmania panamensis and species from the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia).
  • Studies of celullar and molecular biology of host-pathogen interaction (Leishmania panamensis and BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice).
  • Design and development of antileshmania vaccine candidates using bioinformatics.
  • Discovery of antileishmania drug candidates.
  • Genomics of Leptospira sp.
  • Genomics of SARS-CoV-2.
Methodological innovation and implementation lines
  • Implementation of bioinformatics and advanced biostatistics for transcriptomic studies.
  • Implementation of multivariate statistical methods for optimization of epidemiological studies.
  • Development of drug discovery platforms base on genetically modified microorganisms.
  • Molecular epidemiology of Leptospira sp.
  • Toxoplasma gondii epidemiology.
  • Studies on the frequency of HLA alleles in the panamanian population.
  • Validation of serological test for SARS-CoV-2 and seroprevalence studies.


  • MIT Technology Review, Innovators under 35 LATAM 2019.
  • Sistema Nacional de Investigación, researcher level I. 2018.


First author
Restrepo, C.M., Llanes, A., Herrera, L., Ellis, E., Lleonart, R., Fernández, PL. Gene expression patterns associated with Leishmania panamensis infection in macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021, 15(2): e0009225.

Restrepo, C.M.; Fábrega, L.; Torres, A.; Smith, D.; Chan, P.; Pérez, D.; Cumbrera, A.; Caballero E., Z. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii and Risk Factors Associated with the Infection in Stray Dogs and Cats of Panama. Microorganisms2020, 8, 927, doi:10.3390/microorganisms8060927. (Shared first authorship).

Restrepo, C.M.; Llanes, A.; Cedeño, E.M.; Chang, J.H.; Álvarez, J.; Ríos, M.; Penagos, H.; Suárez, J.A.; Lleonart, R. Environmental Conditions May Shape the Patterns of Genomic Variations in Leishmania panamensis. Genes (Basel).2019, 10, 838, doi:10.3390/genes10110838. (Shared first authorship).

Restrepo, C.M.; Llanes, A.; Lleonart, R. Use of AFLP for the study of eukaryotic pathogens affecting humans. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2018, 63, 360–369,doi:10.1016/j.meegid.201709017.

Restrepo CM, Llanes A, De La Guardia C, Lleonart R. Genome-wide discovery and development of polymorphic microsatellites from Leishmania panamensis parasites circulating in central Panama. Parasites & Vectors. 2015, 8:527. doi:10.1186/s13071-015-1153-2.

Restrepo CM, De La Guardia C, Sousa OE, Calzada JE, LFernández P, Lleonart R. AFLP Polymorphisms Allow High Resolution Genetic Analysis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Agents Circulating in Panama and Other Members of the Leishmania Genus. PLoS ONE. 2013, 8(9): e73177. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073177.

Coronado LM, De La Guardia CI, González YS, Restrepo CM, Tayler NM (2011). DNA Repair Mechanisms as Drug Targets in Prokaryotes. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy. 2011, 5(3): 1206-1232. (All authors contributed equally).

Restrepo CM, Pérez Lao E, De La Guardia C, Calzada JE, Sousa OE, Lleonart R. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms reveals high intraspecific variability in field isolates of Leishmania panamensis. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy. 2011, 5: 1183-92.


Second author
Llanes, A.; Restrepo, C.M.; Caballero, Z.; Rajeev, S.; Kennedy, M.A.; Lleonart, R. Betacoronavirus Genomes: How Genomic Information has been Used to Deal with Past Outbreaks and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4546, doi:10.3390/ijms21124546.

Llanes, A.; Restrepo, C.M.; Lleonart, R. VianniaTopes: a database of predicted immunogenic peptides for Leishmania(Viannia) species. Database (Oxford). 2018, 2018, bay111, doi:10.1093/database/bay111.

Llanes, A.; Restrepo, C.M.; Riesgo-Ferreiro, P.; Rajeev, S. Genomic Variability among Field Isolates and Laboratory-Adapted Strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo. Int. J. Microbiol. 2018, 2018, 1–12, doi:10.1155/2018/2137036.

Llanes A, Restrepo CM, Rajeev S. Whole Genome Sequencing Allows Better Understanding of the Evolutionary History of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Hardjo. PLoS ONE. 2016, 11(7): e0159387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159387.

Llanes A, Restrepo CM, Del Vecchio G, Anguizola FJ, and Lleonart R (2015). The genome of Leishmania panamensis: insights into genomics of the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Scientific Reports. 2015, 5, 8550 doi:10.1038/srep08550.



Llanes, A.; Ortiz, L.; Moscoso, J.; Gutiérrez, G, Blake, E.; Restrepo, C.M.; Lleonart, R.; Cuero, C.; Vernaza-Kwiers, A. HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in the Panamanian population. Human Immunology. 2021, (82) 1, doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2020.11.006.

Villarrel, A., Rangel, G., et al., Restrepo, C., et al. Performance of a point of care test for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and preliminary seroprevalence in community and healthcare workers of Panama. Frontiers in Medicine. 2021, doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.616106.

Herrera, L.; Llanes, A.; Álvarez, J.; Degracia, K.; Restrepo, C.M.; Rivera, R.; Stephens, D.E.; Dang, H.T.; Larionov, O. V.; Lleonart, R.; et al. Antileishmanial activity of a new chloroquine analog in an animal model of Leishmania panamensisinfection. Int. J. Parasitol. Drugs Drug Resist. 2020, 14, 56–61, doi:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2020.08.002.

Llanes, A.; Prakoso, D.; Restrepo, C.M.; Rajeev, S. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Copenhageni Strain, Assembled with a Combination of Nanopore and Illumina Reads. Microbiol. Resour. Announc. 2020, 9, doi:10.1128/MRA.00200-20.

Rajeev, S.; Shiokawa, K.; Llanes, A.; Rajeev, M.; Restrepo, C.M.; Chin, R.; Cedeño, E.; Ellis, E. Detection and Characterization of Leptospira Infection and Exposure in Rats on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts. Animals 2020, 10, 350, doi:10.3390/ani10020350.

González Y, Doens D, Santamaría R, Ramos M, Restrepo CM, et al. A Pseudopterane Diterpene Isolated From the Octocoral Pseudopterogorgia acerosa Inhibits the Inflammatory Response Mediated by TLR-Ligands and TNF-Alpha in Macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2013, 8(12): e84107. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084107.


Carlos Mario Restrepo Arboleda, PhD

Highest degree of studies: Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University/INDICASAT AIP.

Category: Researcher

National Research System Level (SIN):  National Researcher Level I (2018).

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